Early View Articles articles

Ocular nerve growth factor administration counteracts the impairment of neural precursor cell viability and differentiation in the brain subventricular area of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

by Paola Tirassa, Mattia Maccarone, Valentina Carito, Sara De Nicolò, Marco Fiore Abstract The ocular administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) as eye drops (oNGF) has been shown to exert protective effects in forebrain-injured animal models, including adult diabetes induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg body weight). This type 1 diabetes model […]

Modulation in the mirror neuron system when action prediction is not satisfied

by Julio Plata Bello, Cristián Modroño, Francisco Marcano, José Luis González-Mora Abstract The ability to understand competitive games is closely connected to the mirror neuron system (MNS). This network is activated not only when an action is performed, but also when it is observed. Apart from allowing the understanding of actions performed by others, the […]

Norepinephrine and corticosterone in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus predict PTSD-like symptoms in mice

by C.-Y. Kao, G. Stalla, J. Stalla, C. T. Wotjak, E. Anderzhanova Abstract This study measured changes in brain extracellular norepinephrine (NE) and free corticosterone (CORT) levels in a mouse model of post-traumatic stress disorder and related them to hyperarousal and fear memory retention. To this end, microdialysis in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and […]

Generation of resonance-dependent oscillation by mGluR-I activation switches single spiking to bursting in mesencephalic trigeminal sensory neurons

by Gehoon Chung, Mitsuru Saito, Yasuhiro Kawasaki, Tsutomu Kawano, Dongxu Yin, Soojung Lee, Mikihiko Kogo, Masahiko Takada, Yong Chul Bae, Joong Soo Kim, Seog Bae Oh, Youngnam Kang Abstract The primary sensory neurons supplying muscle spindles of jaw-closing muscles are unique in that they have their somata in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MTN) in the […]

High-frequency stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex decreases cellular firing in the dorsal raphe

by Luka R. Srejic, Clement Hamani, William D. Hutchison Abstract High-frequency deep brain stimulation (HFS-DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate (SCC) region has been investigated as a treatment for refractory forms of depression with a ~50% remission rate in open label studies. However, the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS are still largely unknown. Using anaesthetized Sprague Dawley […]

Firing properties of Renshaw cells defined by Chrna2 are modulated by hyperpolarizing and small conductance ion currents Ih and ISK

by Sharn Perry, Henrik Gezelius, Martin Larhammar, Markus M. Hilscher, Boris Lamotte d’Incamps, Katarina E. Leao, Klas Kullander Abstract Renshaw cells in the spinal cord ventral horn regulate motoneuron output through recurrent inhibition. Renshaw cells can be identified in vitro using anatomical and cellular criteria; however, their functional role in locomotion remains poorly defined because […]

Intrinsic membrane plasticity via increased persistent sodium conductance of cholinergic neurons in the rat laterodorsal tegmental nucleus contributes to cocaine-induced addictive behavior

by Hironori Kamii, Ryo Kurosawa, Naofumi Taoka, Fumiya Shinohara, Masabumi Minami, Katsuyuki Kaneda Abstract The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) is a brainstem nucleus implicated in reward processing and is one of the main sources of cholinergic afferents to the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Neuroplasticity in this structure may affect the excitability of VTA dopamine neurons […]

Cocaine self-administration enhances excitatory responses of pyramidal neurons in the rat medial prefrontal cortex to human immunodeficiency virus-1 Tat

by Wesley N. Wayman, Lihua Chen, T. Celeste Napier, Xiu-Ti Hu Abstract The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a critical role in reward-motivated behaviors. Repeated cocaine exposure dysregulates the dorsal mPFC, and this is thought to contribute to cocaine-seeking and relapse of abstinent abusers. Neuropathology of the mPFC also occurs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive […]

Hemispheric lateralization in top-down attention during spatial relation processing: a Granger causal model approach

by N. W. Falasca, S. D’Ascenzo, A. Di Domenico, M. Onofrj, L. Tommasi, B. Laeng, R. Franciotti Abstract Magnetoencephalography was recorded during a matching-to-sample plus cueing paradigm, in which participants judged the occurrence of changes in either categorical (CAT) or coordinate (COO) spatial relations. Previously, parietal and frontal lobes were identified as key areas in […]

Adenosine A2b receptors control A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission in the mouse hippocampus

by Francisco Q. Gonçalves, Johny Pires, Anna Pliassova, Rui Beleza, Cristina Lemos, Joana M. Marques, Ricardo J. Rodrigues, Paula M. Canas, Attila Köfalvi, Rodrigo A. Cunha, Daniel Rial Abstract Adenosine is a neuromodulator mostly acting through A1 (inhibitory) and A2A (excitatory) receptors in the brain. A2B receptors (A2BR) are Gs/q-protein-coupled receptors with low expression in […]