Early View Articles articles

Prenatal alcohol exposure and adolescent stress – unmasking persistent attentional deficits in rats

by Wendy L. Comeau, Catharine A. Winstanley, Joanne Weinberg Abstract Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can produce a myriad of deficits. Unfortunately, affected individuals may also be exposed to the stress of an adverse home environment, contributing to deficits of attentional processes that are the hallmark of optimal executive function. Male offspring of ad-libitum-fed Control (Con), [...]

Selective increase of in vivo firing frequencies in DA SN neurons after proteasome inhibition in the ventral midbrain

by Mahalakshmi Subramaniam, Beatrice Kern, Simone Vogel, Verena Klose, Gaby Schneider, Jochen Roeper Abstract The impairment of protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is present in sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD), and might play a key role in selective degeneration of vulnerable dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN). Further evidence for [...]

The role of the area postrema in the anorectic effects of amylin and salmon calcitonin: behavioral and neuronal phenotyping

by Fiona E. Braegger, Lori Asarian, Kirsten Dahl, Thomas A. Lutz, Christina N. Boyle Abstract Amylin reduces meal size by activating noradrenergic neurons in the area postrema (AP). Neurons in the AP also mediate the eating-inhibitory effects of salmon calcitonin (sCT), a potent amylin agonist, but the phenotypes of the neurons mediating its effect are [...]

Testing the role of preBötzinger Complex somatostatin neurons in respiratory and vocal behaviors

by Srinivasan Tupal, Michael A. Rieger, Guang-Yi Ling, Thomas J. Park, Joseph D. Dougherty, Ann K. Goodchild, Paul A. Gray Abstract Identifying neurons essential for the generation of breathing and related behaviors such as vocalisation is an important question for human health. The targeted loss of preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) glutamatergic neurons, including those that express [...]

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase regulates activity-dependent BDNF expression in post-mitotic cortical neurons

by Vikram S. Ratnu, Wei Wei, Timothy W. Bredy Abstract Activity-dependent gene expression depends, in part, on transcriptional regulation that is coordinated by rapid changes in the chromatin landscape as well as the covalent modification of DNA. Here we demonstrate that the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a gene that is critically involved in [...]

When first language is not first: an functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the neural basis of diglossia in Arabic

by Michael Nevat, Asaid Khateb, Anat Prior Abstract In Arabic, the language used for everyday conversation (‘spoken Arabic’ – SA) differs markedly from literary Arabic (LA), which is used for written communication and formal functions. This fact raises questions regarding the cognitive status of the two varieties and their processing in the brain. Previous studies [...]

Leukemia inhibitor factor promotes functional recovery and oligodendrocyte survival in rat models of focal ischemia

by Derrick D. Rowe, Lisa A. Collier, Hilary A. Seifert, Cortney B. Chapman, Christopher C. Leonardo, Alison E. Willing, Keith R. Pennypacker Abstract Human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) cells have shown efficacy in rodent models of focal ischemia and in vitro systems that recapitulate stroke conditions. One potential mechanism of protection is through secretion of [...]

Evidence for perceptual neglect of environmental features in hippocampal-lesioned pigeons during homing

by Anna Gagliardo, Enrica Pollonara, Vincent J. Coppola, Carlos D. Santos, Martin Wikelski, Verner P. Bingman Abstract The importance of the vertebrate hippocampus in spatial cognition is often related to its broad role in memory. However, in birds, the hippocampus appears to be more specifically involved in spatial processes. The maturing of GPS-tracking technology has [...]

The dorsal raphe nucleus is integral to negative prediction errors in Pavlovian fear

by Benjamin A. Berg, Geoffrey Schoenbaum, Michael A. McDannald Abstract Prediction errors are central to modern learning theories. While brain regions contributing to reward prediction errors have been uncovered, the sources of aversive prediction errors remain largely unknown. Here we used probabilistic and deterministic reinforcement procedures, followed by extinction, to examine the contribution of the [...]

Top-down inputs from the olfactory cortex in the postprandial period promote elimination of granule cells in the olfactory bulb

by Sayaka Komano-Inoue, Hiroyuki Manabe, Mizuho Ota, Ikue Kusumoto-Yoshida, Takeshi K. Yokoyama, Kensaku Mori, Masahiro Yamaguchi Abstract Elimination of granule cells (GCs) in the olfactory bulb (OB) is not a continual event but is promoted during a short time window in the postprandial period, typically with postprandial sleep. However, the neuronal mechanisms for the enhanced [...]