Early View Articles articles

Intracortical modulation, and not spinal inhibition, mediates placebo analgesia

by M. Martini, M. C. H. Lee, E. Valentini, G. D. Iannetti Abstract Suppression of spinal responses to noxious stimulation has been detected using spinal fMRI during placebo analgesia, which is therefore increasingly considered a phenomenon caused by descending inhibition of spinal activity. However, spinal fMRI is technically challenging and prone to false-positive results. Here […]

Placebo-induced decrease in fatigue: evidence for a central action on the preparatory phase of movement

by Alessandro Piedimonte, Fabrizio Benedetti, Elisa Carlino Abstract Placebos have been found to affect a number of pathological processes and physiological functions through expectations of clinical improvement. Recently, the study of the placebo effect has moved from the clinical to the physical performance setting, wherein placebos can boost performance by increasing muscle work and by […]

A transcranial magnetic stimulation study on response activation and selection in spatial conflict

by Lara Bardi, Sami Schiff, Demis Basso, Daniela Mapelli Abstract In choice reaction tasks, subjects typically respond faster when the relative spatial positions of stimulus and response correspond than when they do not, even when spatial information is irrelevant to the task (e.g. in the Simon task). Cognitive models attribute the Simon effect to automatic […]

Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A modulates vesicular release and calcium channel function at peripheral sympathetic synapses

by Christian Vogl, Shota Tanifuji, Benedicte Danis, Veronique Daniels, Patrik Foerch, Christian Wolff, Benjamin J. Whalley, Sumiko Mochida, Gary J. Stephens Abstract Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein (SV)2A is a transmembrane protein found in secretory vesicles and is critical for Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in central neurons, although its mechanism of action remains uncertain. Previous studies have proposed, variously, […]

Parallel pathways from motor and somatosensory cortex for controlling whisker movements in mice

by Varun Sreenivasan, Kajari Karmakar, Filippo M. Rijli, Carl C. H. Petersen Abstract Mice can gather tactile sensory information by actively moving their whiskers to palpate objects in their immediate surroundings. Whisker sensory perception therefore requires integration of sensory and motor information, which occurs prominently in the neocortex. The signalling pathways from the neocortex for […]

Neurosteroids differentially modulate fast and slow interictal discharges in the hippocampal CA3 area

by Rochelle Herrington, Maxime Lévesque, Massimo Avoli Abstract Two types of spontaneous interictal discharge, identified as fast and slow events, can be recorded from the hippocampal CA3 area in rat brain slices during application of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) (50 μm). Here, we addressed how neurosteroids modulate the occurrence of these interictal events and of the associated high-frequency […]

Encoding of point of view during action observation in the local field potentials of macaque area F5

by Vittorio Caggiano, Martin Giese, Peter Thier, Antonino Casile Abstract The discovery of mirror neurons compellingly shows that the monkey premotor area F5 is active not only during the execution but also during the observation of goal-directed motor acts. Previous studies have addressed the functioning of the mirror-neuron system at the single-unit level. Here, we […]

RAGE mediates the inactivation of nAChRs in sympathetic neurons under high glucose conditions

by Andrew R. Chandna, Manoj Nair, Christine Chang, Paul R. Pennington, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Darrell D. Mousseau, Verónica A. Campanucci Abstract Autonomic dysfunction is a serious complication of diabetes and can lead to cardiovascular abnormalities and premature death. It was recently proposed that autonomic dysfunction is triggered by oxidation-mediated inactivation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), […]

Corticosterone analgesia is mediated by the spinal production of neuroactive metabolites that enhance GABAergic inhibitory transmission on dorsal horn rat neurons

by Vivien Zell, Pierre-Éric Juif, Ulrike Hanesch, Pierrick Poisbeau, Fernand Anton, Pascal Darbon Abstract Corticosterone (CORT) is a glucocorticoid produced by adrenal glands under the control of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Circulating CORT can enter the central nervous system and be reduced to neuroactive 3α5α-reduced steroids, which modulate GABAA receptors. In the dorsal spinal cord, GABAergic […]