Early View Articles articles

Contrast and response gain control depend on cortical map architecture

by Markus A. Hietanen, Shaun L. Cloherty, Michael R. Ibbotson Abstract Visual cortical neurons are sensitive to visual stimulus contrast and most cells adapt their sensitivity to the prevailing visual environment. Specifically, they match the steepest region of their contrast response function to the prevailing contrast (contrast gain control), and reduce spike rates to limit […]

The anterior Paraventricular Thalamus Modulates Neuronal Excitability in the Suprachiasmatic Nuclei of the Rat

by Javier Alamilla, Daniel Granados-Fuentes, Raul Aguilar-Roblero Abstract The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the master clock, which regulates circadian rhythms, in mammals. Neural activity of SCN neurons is synchronized to external light through the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT). The paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) is a neural structure that receives synaptic inputs from, and projects back to, […]

Clinical and Neurobiological Advances in Promoting Regeneration of the Ventral Root Avulsion Lesion

by Ruben Eggers, Martijn R. Tannemaat, Fred Winter, Martijn J.A. Malessy, Joost Verhaagen Abstract Root avulsions due to traction to the brachial plexus causes complete and permanent loss of function. Until fairly recent, such lesions were considered impossible to repair. Here we review clinical repair strategies and current progress in experimental ventral root avulsion lesions. […]

Dissociation of Perception and Action in Audiovisual Multisensory Integration

by Lynnette M. Leone, Mark E. McCourt Abstract The “temporal rule” of multisensory integration proposes that unisensory stimuli, and the neuronal responses they evoke, must fall within a window of integration. Ecological validity demands that multisensory integration should occur only for physically simultaneous events (which may give rise to non-simultaneous neural activations), and spurious neural […]

Depression-Like Behavior in Mice is Associated with Disrupted Circadian Rhythms in Nucleus Accumbens and Periaqueductal Gray

by Dominic Landgraf, Jaimie E. Long, David K. Welsh Abstract An association between circadian rhythms and mood regulation is well established, and disturbed circadian clocks are believed to contribute to the development of mood disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD). The circadian system is coordinated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master pacemaker in the […]

The effect of oppositional parietal transcranial direct current stimulation on lateralised brain functions

by Lucia M Li, Rob Leech, Gregory Scott, Paresh Malhotra, Barry Seemungal, David J Sharp Abstract Cognitive functions such as numerical processing and spatial attention show varying degrees of lateralisation. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can be used to investigate how modulating cortical excitability affects performance of these tasks. We investigated the effect of bi-parietal […]

Response adaptation to red-green color and achromatic contrast in the human visual cortex: an fMRI study

by Kathy T. Mullen, Dorita H. F. Chang, Robert F. Hess Abstract How responses to color in the human brain are organized within the visual pathways is controversial. A key issue is whether there are modular pathways that respond selectively to color or whether there are common neural substrates for both color and achromatic contrast. […]

Scene coherence can affect the local response to natural images in human V1

by Damien J. Mannion, Daniel J. Kersten, Cheryl A. Olman Abstract Neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) can be indirectly affected by visual stimulation positioned outside their receptive fields. Although this contextual modulation is intensely studied, we have little notion of how it manifests with naturalistic stimulation. Here, we investigated how the V1 response to […]

Localization and expression of GABA transporters in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

by Michael Moldavan, Olga Cravetchi, Melissa Williams, Robert P. Irwin, Sue A. Aicher, Charles N. Allen Abstract GABA is a principal neurotransmitter in the suprachiasmatic hypothalamic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock. Despite the importance of GABA and GABA uptake for functioning of the circadian pacemaker, the localization and expression of GABA transporters (GATs) in […]

Ionotropic glutamate receptor GluA4 and T-type calcium channel Cav3.1 subunits control key aspects of synaptic transmission at the mouse L5B-POm giant synapse

by Min Seol, Thomas Kuner Abstract The properties and molecular determinants of synaptic transmission at giant synapses connecting layer 5B (L5B) neurons of the somatosensory cortex (S1) with relay neurons of the posteriomedial nucleus (POm) of the thalamus have not been investigated in mice. We addressed this by using direct electrical stimulation of fluorescently labeled […]