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Regular theta-firing neurons in the nucleus incertus during sustained hippocampal activation

by Sergio Martínez-Bellver, Ana Cervera-Ferri, Joana Martínez-Ricós, Amparo Ruiz-Torner, Aina Luque-Martínez, Arantxa Blasco-Serra, Juan Guerrero-Martínez, Manuel Bataller-Mompeán, Vicent Teruel-Martí Abstract This paper describes the existence of theta-coupled neuronal activity in the nucleus incertus (NI). Theta rhythm is relevant for cognitive processes such as spatial navigation and memory processing, and can be recorded in a number […]

Pupil size reveals preparatory processes in the generation of pro-saccades and anti-saccades

by Chin-An Wang, Donald C. Brien, Douglas P. Munoz Abstract The ability to generate flexible behaviors to accommodate changing goals in response to identical sensory stimuli is a signature that is inherited in humans and higher-level animals. In the oculomotor system, this function has often been examined with the anti-saccade task, in which subjects are […]

d-amino acid oxidase knockout (Dao−/−) mice show enhanced short-term memory performance and heightened anxiety, but no sleep or circadian rhythm disruption

by David Pritchett, Sibah Hasan, Shu K. E. Tam, Sandra J. Engle, Nicholas J. Brandon, Trevor Sharp, Russell G. Foster, Paul J. Harrison, David M. Bannerman, Stuart N. Peirson Abstract d-amino acid oxidase (DAO, DAAO) is an enzyme that degrades d-serine, the primary endogenous co-agonist of the synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. Convergent evidence implicates DAO in […]

Stereological estimation of neuron number and plaque load in the hippocampal region of a transgenic rat model of Alzheimer's disease

by Ingrid Heggland, Inge S. Storkaas, Hanne T. Soligard, Asgeir Kobro-Flatmoen, Menno P. Witter Abstract The main hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal death. The McGill-R-Thy1-APP rat is one of the few transgenic rat models of AD that displays progressive amyloid pathology. This study aimed to further characterise this […]

Shank1 regulates excitatory synaptic transmission in mouse hippocampal parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory interneurons

by Wenjie Mao, Takuya Watanabe, Sukhee Cho, Jeffrey L. Frost, Tina Truong, Xiaohu Zhao, Kensuke Futai Abstract The Shank genes (SHANK1, 2, 3) encode scaffold proteins highly enriched in postsynaptic densities where they regulate synaptic structure in spiny neurons. Mutations in human Shank genes are linked to autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Shank1 mutant mice […]

Cell-specific regulation of neuronal activity by endogenous production of nitric oxide

by Lei Ray Zhong, Stephen Estes, Liana Artinian, Vincent Rehder Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) is a key regulator of neuronal excitability in the nervous system. While most studies have investigated its role as an intercellular messenger/modulator, less is known about potential physiological roles played by NO within NO-producing neurons. We showed previously that intrinsic production […]

Anatomically structured burst spiking of thalamic reticular nucleus cells: implications for distinct modulations of sensory processing in lemniscal and non-lemniscal thalamocortical loop circuitries

by Akihisa Kimura, Hiroki Imbe Abstract The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) occupies a highly strategic position to modulate sensory processing in the thalamocortical loop circuitries. It has been shown that TRN visual cells projecting to first- and higher-order thalamic nuclei have distinct levels of burst spiking, suggesting the possibility that the TRN exerts differential influences […]

Electrophysiological and morphological properties of neurons in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus that express both ChAT and VGAT in a double-transgenic rat model

by Yasuhiko Saito, Yue Zhang, Yuchio Yanagawa Abstract Although it has been proposed that neurons that contain both acetylcholine (ACh) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are present in the prepositus hypoglossi nucleus (PHN), these neurons have not been characterized because of the difficulty in identifying them. In the present study, PHN neurons that express both choline […]

Auditory stimulation enhances thalamic somatosensory high-frequency oscillations in healthy humans: a neurophysiological marker of cross-sensory sensitization?

by Domenico Restuccia, Gianluca Coppola Abstract Electrical stimulation of upper limb nerves evokes a train of high-frequency wavelets (high-frequency oscillations, HFOs) on the human scalp. These HFOs are related to the influence of arousal-promoting structures on somatosensory input processing, and are generated in the primary somatosensory cortex (post-synaptic HFOs) and the terminal tracts of thalamocortical […]

Sex differences and effects of prenatal exposure to excess testosterone on ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons in adult sheep

by Erinna C. Z. Brown, Casey J. Steadman, Theresa M. Lee, Vasantha Padmanabhan, Michael N. Lehman, Lique M. Coolen Abstract Prenatal testosterone (T) excess in sheep results in a wide array of reproductive neuroendocrine deficits and alterations in motivated behavior. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a critical role in reward and motivated behaviors and […]

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