Early View Articles articles

In vivo two-photon imaging of structural dynamics in the spinal dorsal horn in an inflammatory pain model

by Shinji Matsumura, Wataru Taniguchi, Kazuhiko Nishida, Terumasa Nakatsuka, Seiji Ito Abstract Two-photon microscopy imaging has recently been applied to the brain to clarify functional and structural synaptic plasticity in adult neural circuits. Whereas the pain system in the spinal cord is phylogenetically primitive and easily exhibits behavioral changes such as hyperalgesia in response to […]

Activation of the mouse odorant receptor 37 subsystem coincides with a reduction of novel environment-induced activity within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus

by Bettina Klein, Verena Bautze, Anna-Maria Maier, Jan Deussing, Heinz Breer, Jörg Strotmann Abstract Within the main olfactory system of mammals, a unique subsystem exists that is comprised of sensory neurons expressing odorant receptors (ORs) of the OR37 subfamily. These receptors are exclusive for mammals and are highly conserved across species. The mouse OR37 receptor […]

Exploration of the dynamics between brain regions associated with the default-mode network and frontostriatal pathway with regards to task familiarity

by Jean-Sebastien Provost, Oury Monchi Abstract Specific brain regions have consistently been reported to be activated during resting state period, and they were described as being part of a particular network called the default-mode network (DMN). It has been shown that the DMN would deactivate during goal-directed tasks, but the actual relationship between them is […]

Deficiency of Factor VII activating protease alters the outcome of ischemic stroke in mice

by A. U. Joshi, C. Orset, B. Engelhardt, E. Baumgart-Vogt, T. Gerriets, D. Vivien, S. M. Kanse Abstract Factor VII activating protease (FSAP) is a circulating protease with a putative role in hemostasis, remodeling and inflammation. A polymorphism giving rise to low proteolytic activity has been associated with an increased risk of stroke and carotid […]

Effects of defeat stress on behavioral flexibility in males and females: modulation by the mu-opioid receptor

by Sarah A. Laredo, Michael Q. Steinman, Cindee F. Robles, Emilio Ferrer, Benjamin J. Ragen, Brian C. Trainor Abstract Behavioral flexibility is a component of executive functioning that allows individuals to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Independent lines of research indicate that the mu opioid receptor (MOR) is an important mediator of behavioral flexibility and […]

Diurnal and stress-induced intra-hippocampal corticosterone rise attenuated in 11β-HSD1-deficient mice: a microdialysis study in young and aged mice

by Joyce L. W. Yau, June Noble, Christopher J. Kenyon, Mike Ludwig, Jonathan R. Seckl Abstract 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) locally regenerates active glucocorticoids from their inert forms thereby amplifying intracellular levels within target tissues including the brain. We previously showed greater increases in intra-hippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels upon Y-maze testing in aged wild-type […]

Activation of mTOR signaling pathway is secondary to neuronal excitability in a mouse model of mesio-temporal lobe epilepsy

by Ayako Shima, Naoki Nitta, Fumio Suzuki, Anne-Marie Laharie, Kazuhiko Nozaki, Antoine Depaulis Abstract Recent studies in animal models have suggested that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is involved in several features of mesio-temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), and that its inhibition could have therapeutic interests. However, it remains controversial whether mTOR activation […]

Early-life stress induces anxiety-like behaviors and activity imbalances in the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala in adult rats

by Junko Ishikawa, Ryoichi Nishimura, Akinori Ishikawa Abstract Early-life stress increases the prevalence of psychiatric diseases associated with emotional dysregulation. Emotional regulation requires the inhibitory influence of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) on amygdalar activity, and dysfunction of this system is believed to induce anxiety. Because mPFC and amygdala have dense reciprocal connections and projections […]

Implication of delta opioid receptor subtype 2 but not delta opioid receptor subtype 1 in the development of morphine analgesic tolerance in a rat model of chronic inflammatory pain

by H. Beaudry, L. Gendron, J. A. Morón Abstract Opioids are well known for their robust analgesic effects. Chronic activation of mu opioid receptors (MOPs) is, however, accompanied by various unwanted effects such as analgesic tolerance. Among other mechanisms, interactions between MOPs and delta opioid receptors (DOPs) are thought to play an important role in […]

Glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons in the mouse ventral tegmental area

by Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi, Jia Qi, Hui-Ling Wang, Shiliang Zhang, Marisela Morales Abstract The ventral tegmental area (VTA) comprises dopamine (DA), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu) neurons. Some rat VTA Glu neurons, expressing vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2), co-express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). While transgenic mice are now being used in attempts to determine the role […]