Early View Articles articles

Phenotype-dependent Ca2+ Dynamics in Single Boutons of Various Anatomically Identified GABAergic Interneurons in the Rat Hippocampus

by Tibor Lőrincz, Máté Kisfali, Balázs Lendvai, E Sylvester Vizi Abstract Interneurons (INs) of the hippocampus exert versatile inhibition on pyramidal cells by silencing the network at different oscillation frequencies. Although IN discharge can phase-lock to various rhythms in the hippocampus, under high frequency axon firing, the boutons may not be able to follow the […]

Inhibition of Rho-kinase by Fasudil protects dopamine neurons and attenuates inflammatory response in intranasal LPS-mediated Parkinson's model

by Qing He, Yan-hua Li, Si-si Guo, Ying Wang, Wei Lin, Qiong Zhang, Jian Wang, Cun-gen Ma, Bao-guo Xiao Abstract Microglia activation and inflammatory factors in brain microenvironment are associated with degeneration of neurons in the SN of PD patients and various PD models. There is increasing evidence that the Rho/ROCK (Rho kinase) signaling pathway […]

Opposite Roles of Bradykinin B1 and B2 Receptors during Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Experimental Diabetic Rats

by Hongfei Sang, Ling Liu, Liumin Wang, Zhongming Qiu, Min Li, Linjie Yu, Hao Zhang, Ruifeng Shi, Shuhong Yu, Ruibing Guo, Ruidong Ye, Xinfeng Liu, Renliang Zhang Abstract Bradykinin receptors play important roles in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of non-diabetics (NDM). Their functions in diabetics (DM), however, have not been studied. In this study, we […]

An fMRI investigation of motor control in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome during imagined and executed movements

by Laura Zapparoli, Mauro Porta, Martina Gandola, Paola Invernizzi, Valeria Colajanni, Domenico Servello, Alberto Zerbi, Giuseppe Banfi, Eraldo Paulesu Abstract The current study investigated the neural correlates of voluntary motor control in 24 adult Gilles de la Tourette (GTS) patients. We examined whether imagination and the execution of the same voluntary movement – finger oppositions […]

Areas V1 and V2 show microsaccade-related 3-4 Hz covariation in gamma power and frequency

by E. Lowet, M.J. Roberts, C.A. Bosman, P. Fries, P. de Weerd Abstract Neuronal gamma-band synchronization (25-90 Hz) in visual cortex appears sustained and stable during prolonged visual stimulation when investigated with conventional averages across trials. Yet, recent studies in macaque visual cortex have used single-trial analyses to show that both power and frequency of gamma […]

Individual and sex-related differences in pain and relief responsiveness are associated with differences in resting-state functional networks in healthy volunteers

by Giulia Galli, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Matteo Feurra, Marco Bonifazi, Simone Rossi, Martin P. Paulus, Alessandro Rossi Abstract Pain processing is associated with neural activity in a number of wide-spread brain regions. Here, we investigated whether functional connectivity at rest between these brain regions is associated with individual and sex-related differences in thermal pain and relief […]

Shank-cortactin interactions control actin dynamics to maintain flexibility of neuronal spines and synapses

by Harold D. MacGillavry, Justin M. Kerr, Josh Kassner, Nicholas A. Frost, Thomas A. Blanpied Abstract The family of Shank scaffolding molecules (comprising Shank1, 2 and 3) are core components of the postsynaptic density in neuronal synapses. Shanks link surface receptors to other scaffolding molecules within the postsynaptic density, as well as to the actin […]

Alteration of SLP2-like Immunolabeling in Mitochondria Signifies Early Cellular Damage in Developing and Adult Mouse Brain

by Yury M. Morozov, Yu-Yo Sun, Chia-Yi Kuan, Pasko Rakic Abstract Mitochondria play a critical role in various pathways of regulated cell death. Here we propose a novel method for detection of initial derangement of mitochondria in degenerating and dying neuronal cells. The method is based on our recent finding that antibodies directed against the […]

Origins of multisynaptic projections from the basal ganglia to the forelimb region of the ventral premotor cortex in macaque monkeys

by Hiroaki Ishida, Ken-ichi Inoue, Masahiko Takada, Eiji Hoshi Abstract The ventral premotor cortex (PMv), occupying the ventral aspect of area 6 in the frontal lobe, has been implicated in action planning and execution based on visual signals. Although the PMv has been characterized by cortico-cortical connections with specific subregions of the parietal and prefrontal […]

Tonically active NMDA receptors – a signalling mechanism critical for interneuronal excitability in the CA1 stratum radiatum

by Ilse Riebe, Henrik Seth, Georgia Culley, Zita Dósa, Shayma Radi, Karin Strand, Victoria Fröjd, Eric Hanse Abstract In contrast to tonic extrasynaptic GABAA receptor-mediated signalling, the physiological significance of tonic extrasynaptic NMDA receptor-mediated (NMDAR) signalling remains uncertain. In this study we used reversible open-channel blockers of NMDARs, memantine and phencyclidine (PCP), as tools to […]