Early View Articles articles

Brain responds to other person's eye blinks in a natural setting—the more empathetic the viewer the stronger the responses

by Anne Mandel, Siiri Helokunnas, Elina Pihko, Riitta Hari Abstract An observer’s brain is known to respond to other persons’ small nonverbal signals, such as gaze shifts and eye blinks. Here we aimed to find out how an observer’s brain reacts to a speaker’s eye blinks in the presence of other audiovisual information. Magnetoencephalographic brain […]

Delayed in vitro Development of Up States but Normal Network Plasticity in Fragile X Circuits

by Helen Motanis, Dean Buonomano Abstract Since the generation of the first mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) a broad range of neurophysiological phenotypes have been reported. However, it remains unclear which phenotypes are casually related to the cognitive deficits associated with FXS. Indeed, because many of these phenotypes are known to be modulated […]

Strategies to promote peripheral nerve regeneration: electrical stimulation and/or exercise

by Tessa Gordon, Arthur W. English Abstract Enhancing the regeneration of axons is often considered a therapeutic target for improving functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. In this review, the evidence for the efficacy of electrical stimulation (ES), daily exercise, and their combination in promoting nerve regeneration after peripheral nerve injuries in both animal models […]

The immunomodulatory properties of adult skin-derived precursor Schwann cells: implications for peripheral nerve injury therapy

by Jo Anne Stratton, Prajay T Shah, Ranjan Kumar, Morgan G Stykel, Yuval Shapira, Joey Grochmal, Gui Fang Guo, Jeff Biernaskie, Rajiv Midha Abstract Skin-derived precursor Schwann cell (SKPSC)-therapy has been identified as a potentially beneficial treatment for peripheral nerve injuries. One hypothesized mechanism in which SKPSCs enhance recovery is via the modulation of macrophages. […]

Forebrain NR2B overexpression enhancing fear acquisition and long-term potentiation in the lateral amygdala

by Yanhong Duan, Siqi Zhou, Jing Ma, Pengcheng Yin, Xiaohua Cao Abstract N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at the thalamus-lateral amygdala (T-LA) synapses is the basis for acquisition of auditory-fear memory. However, the role of the NMDA receptor NR2B subunit in synaptic plasticity at T-LA synapses remains speculative. In the present study, using transgenic […]

Anesthetic effects of isoflurane on the tonotopic map and neuronal population activity in the rat auditory cortex

by Takahiro Noda, Hirokazu Takahashi Abstract Since its discovery nearly four decades ago, sequential microelectrode mapping using hundreds of recording sites has been able to reveal a precise tonotopic organization of the auditory cortex. Despite concerns regarding the effects that anesthesia might have on neuronal responses to tones, anesthesia was essential for these experiments because […]

Local field potentials are local events in the mouse auditory cortex

by Xiuping Liu, Linran Zhou, Fangchao Ding, Yehan Wang, Jun Yan Abstract Local field potentials (LFP) and spikes (SPK) sampled at the thalamocortical recipient layers represent the inputs from the thalamus and outputs to other layers. Previous studies have shown that SPK-constructed receptive fields (RFSPK) of cortical neurons are much smaller than LFP-constructed RFs (RFLFP). […]

The effect of dexmedetomidine on the firing properties of STN neurons in Parkinson's Disease

by Vibhor Krishna, Gavin Elias, Francesco Sammartino, Diellor Basha, Nicolas Kon Kam King, Alfonso Fasano, Renato Munhoz, Suneil K. Kalia, Mojgan Hodaie, Lashmi Venkatraghavan, Andres Lozano, William Hutchison Abstract Dexmedetomidine (an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist) sedation is commonly used during subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS). Its effects on the electrophysiological characteristics of human STN […]

Mouse pups lacking collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4) manifest impaired olfactory function and hyperactivity in the olfactory bulb

by Atsuhiro Tsutiya, Masugi Nishihara, Yoshio Goshima, Ritsuko Ohtani-Kaneko Abstract Members of the collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP) family are reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of various neuronal disorders including schizophrenia and autism. One of them, CRMP4, is reported to participate in aspects of neuronal development such as axonal guidance and dendritic development. […]