Early View Articles articles

The role of the area postrema in the anorectic effects of amylin and salmon calcitonin: behavioral and neuronal phenotyping

by Fiona E. Braegger, Lori Asarian, Kirsten Dahl, Thomas A. Lutz, Christina N. Boyle Abstract Amylin reduces meal size by activating noradrenergic neurons in the area postrema (AP). Neurons in the AP also mediate the eating-inhibitory effects of salmon calcitonin (sCT), a potent amylin agonist, but the phenotypes of the neurons mediating its effect are [...]

Testing the role of preBötzinger Complex somatostatin neurons in respiratory and vocal behaviors

by Srinivasan Tupal, Michael A. Rieger, Guang-Yi Ling, Thomas J. Park, Joseph D. Dougherty, Ann K. Goodchild, Paul A. Gray Abstract Identifying neurons essential for the generation of breathing and related behaviors such as vocalisation is an important question for human health. The targeted loss of preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) glutamatergic neurons, including those that express [...]

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase regulates activity-dependent BDNF expression in post-mitotic cortical neurons

by Vikram S. Ratnu, Wei Wei, Timothy W. Bredy Abstract Activity-dependent gene expression depends, in part, on transcriptional regulation that is coordinated by rapid changes in the chromatin landscape as well as the covalent modification of DNA. Here we demonstrate that the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a gene that is critically involved in [...]

When first language is not first: an functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the neural basis of diglossia in Arabic

by Michael Nevat, Asaid Khateb, Anat Prior Abstract In Arabic, the language used for everyday conversation (‘spoken Arabic’ – SA) differs markedly from literary Arabic (LA), which is used for written communication and formal functions. This fact raises questions regarding the cognitive status of the two varieties and their processing in the brain. Previous studies [...]

Leukemia inhibitor factor promotes functional recovery and oligodendrocyte survival in rat models of focal ischemia

by Derrick D. Rowe, Lisa A. Collier, Hilary A. Seifert, Cortney B. Chapman, Christopher C. Leonardo, Alison E. Willing, Keith R. Pennypacker Abstract Human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) cells have shown efficacy in rodent models of focal ischemia and in vitro systems that recapitulate stroke conditions. One potential mechanism of protection is through secretion of [...]

Evidence for perceptual neglect of environmental features in hippocampal-lesioned pigeons during homing

by Anna Gagliardo, Enrica Pollonara, Vincent J. Coppola, Carlos D. Santos, Martin Wikelski, Verner P. Bingman Abstract The importance of the vertebrate hippocampus in spatial cognition is often related to its broad role in memory. However, in birds, the hippocampus appears to be more specifically involved in spatial processes. The maturing of GPS-tracking technology has [...]

The dorsal raphe nucleus is integral to negative prediction errors in Pavlovian fear

by Benjamin A. Berg, Geoffrey Schoenbaum, Michael A. McDannald Abstract Prediction errors are central to modern learning theories. While brain regions contributing to reward prediction errors have been uncovered, the sources of aversive prediction errors remain largely unknown. Here we used probabilistic and deterministic reinforcement procedures, followed by extinction, to examine the contribution of the [...]

Top-down inputs from the olfactory cortex in the postprandial period promote elimination of granule cells in the olfactory bulb

by Sayaka Komano-Inoue, Hiroyuki Manabe, Mizuho Ota, Ikue Kusumoto-Yoshida, Takeshi K. Yokoyama, Kensaku Mori, Masahiro Yamaguchi Abstract Elimination of granule cells (GCs) in the olfactory bulb (OB) is not a continual event but is promoted during a short time window in the postprandial period, typically with postprandial sleep. However, the neuronal mechanisms for the enhanced [...]

The Ephrin receptor EphA4 restricts axonal sprouting and enhances branching in the injured mouse optic nerve

by Sandrine Joly, Noémie Jordi, Martin E. Schwab, Vincent Pernet Abstract The lack of axonal regeneration in the adult central nervous system is in part attributable to the presence of inhibitory molecules present in the environment of injured axons such as the myelin-associated proteins Nogo-A and MAG and the repulsive guidance molecules Ephrins, Netrins and [...]

Collapsin response-mediator protein 5 (CRMP5) phosphorylation at threonine 516 regulates neurite outgrowth inhibition

by Sébastien Brot, Hinda Smaoune, Mina Youssef-Issa, Céline Malleval, Claire Benetollo, Roger Besançon, Carole Auger, Mahnaz Moradi-Améli, Jérôme Honnorat Abstract The collapsin response-mediator proteins (CRMPs) are multifunctional proteins highly expressed during brain development but down-regulated in the adult brain. They are involved in axon guidance and neurite outgrowth signalling. Among these, the intensively studied CRMP2 [...]